Международное предпринимательство - Ерохин В.Л.
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The long-term development strategy of the EU-Russia relations
includes the cooperation in such spheres, as:
- structural and industrial policy;
- conversion of military manufacture;
- environment protection;
- scientific potential;
- information technologies.
In 1997 was submitted the Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation
(APC) between Russian Federation and European Union. This Agreement is
directed on creation of the necessary conditions for gradual Russian
participation in the European cooperation.The Agreement determines:
1 ) trade regime for goods and services;
2 ) the conditions of the business activity, capitals and labour
3 ) the basic directions of the economic cooperation;
4 ) the general legal frameworks of cooperation in various industries,
including raw and mining, energy supply, agriculture, construction,
standardization and certification, the realization of the concrete
At the same time, this Agreement has the negative restrictive regime for
Russian export on a number of important commodity groups (ferrous
metals, textiles, nuclear fuel, agricultural production).
Because of the EU expansion and integration to the EU of East
European and Baltic countries the Russian export to the traditional for
our country markets can decrease (in particular, export of mineral
fertilizers, chemical products, agriculture products). There is still the
practice of antidumping procedures for Russian products.
Russian export to EU includes oil, gas, raw materials and other low-
The important stimulus for the development of the mutually
advantageous cooperation between Russia and EU is the creation of the
legal environment by the unification and rapproachement of the Russian
and European legislations. The legislation of EU meets the international
requirements, in particular, WTO rules. The rapproachement of the
legislations will push the Russian businessmen to the necessity of the
flexibility and fast adaptation to the conditions of the European market.
Also it will speed up th -• structural reorganization of the Russian
Alongside with the development of the trade relations Russia supports
the close connections with the European financial markets, with banks
and other credit organizations. There are Paris and London Credit
Clubs, and Russia participates them, and also there is the European
Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The West-European investors
are active enough on the Russian market.
The relations with the CIS countries are the special problem for
Russian integration processes. Last years the traditional trade relations
with the CIS countries weakened because of the orientation of the
Russian trade flows to the West Europe and USA.
In the beginning of the 1990s the share of the East European and
CIS countries in Russian export was 60 %, in import - 40 %. In the
middle of the 1990s their share decreased to 15,4 % in export and 16 %
in import. The main reason of this decrease was the aspiration of
Russian businessmen to export their production to the West Europe and
USA and to get the hard currency. At that time the contract prices with
CIS countries remained much below the global prices.
The markets of CIS countries is the traditional zone of influence for
Russia and more favorable conditions for the competition with western
producers. And also for the CIS countries Russia is a very attractive
trade partner. It is determined by the significant economic potential of
our country, cheaper mineral resources, the high level of industrial and
trade integration, technological interdependence of the enterprises.
The integration process in the frameworks of CIS started in 1993
with the Agreement on creation of the Economic Union. This Agreement
provides the legislative base for the gradual deepening of the integration
process through a number of stages:
- creation of free trade association;
- customs union;
- common market of the goods, services, capitals and labour. The
Economic Union assumes:
- free moving of the production factors;
- coordinated credit, budget, tax, price, external, customs and
- the national legal regime to the businessmen of the participating
- the assistance to their direct economic relations;
- the creation of the joint enterprises, transnational associations;
- the coordinated investment policy, including the joint capital
investments and attraction of the foreign investments and credits.
In 1995 was submitted the governmental program on deepening of
economic integration with the CIS countries. This program determined
the main directions of the economic interaction with CIS:
2) the currency and credit policy;
3) joint activity, including joint investment programs;
4) the activity of the interstate economic structures.