Международное предпринимательство - Ерохин В.Л.
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recession in oil production and low oil prices.
6. The investment activity has decreased. Total investments volume
decreased in 1991 on 20 %. The budget investments volume had
especially sharply decreased.
7. The incomes of the national budget decreased because of the
recession of manufacture, decreasing of foreign trade.
8. The gold and foreign currency reserves decreased.
9. Result - the deficiency of the USSR budget in 1991 - more
than $100 bin..
Stage 4. 1991-2000. "Building the capitalism".
1. Destroy of the Soviet Union.
2. Creation of the CIS.
3. The "shock therapy" policy in economic.
5. Uncontrollable production and export of natural resources, absence
of the government control and legislation. Oligarchs.
6. The prevailing principle of "personal enrichment" among the
directors of the government enterprises has resulted in economic
decreasing, in the further weakening of the Russian positions on
the global market.
7. Financial crisis in 1998. Default of Russian economy and
devaluation of Russian currency.
Stage 5. 2000 - present time. The economic pragmatism.
1. The attempt of the political stabilization and consolidation of the
2. The favourable conjuncture of the international market for the
major Russian export products.
3. The attempt of rehabilitation in global economy, the offers of
constructive and mutually advantageous economic partnership.
4. The struggle with the international terrorism.
5. EU and WTO.
Today the successful integration of our country to the global market
depends on the several factors:
1) the results of the Government activity on improvement of the
national economy, its structural reorganization and transition to
the market conditions;
2) the creation of the effective legislative, organizational and technical
preconditions for the economic development.
In the 1990s Russia was in the extremely difficult situation. As a
result of the radical economic reforms the country was rejected on some
decades back, while the majority of other countries quickly advanced. If
USSR occupied the 2nd place after USA on GDP, in 1998 Russia was
on the 12th place, after, for example, China, India, Brasil and Mexico.
Today Russia is deeply involved in the global economy. The share
of export in its GDP is about 27 %, even more than in Germany, France
and Italy. Russia already became the country
with the open economy. But the Russian export consists of energy
resources and raw material. Due to the orientation on the external
market these branches (oil, gas and metals) remained competitive,
while other branches, especially machinery production, decreased in
The status of the high-developed country in the modern integrated
world is impossible without the structural changes in the Russian business.
The national economy should be based on the powerful integrated
corporate structures, first of all financial and industrial structures, capable
to compete on internal and global markets with the leading transnational
Within the framework of the complex integrate strategy of TNC the
capital flows (direct investments) and trade come together. There are
diverse connections in production sphere: between the headquarter
company and its foreign branches, between different branches of the
corporation, between various TNCs and their branches or any other
companies. The international trade becomes the reflection, the
consequence and the stimulus of these connections.
Such new scheme has a number of differences from the former
scheme of international trade. According the former scheme, the
production was focused within the national economy, and then the '
products went abroad to the external markets, where they competed with
the products from other countries.
Nowadays this situation changed, there is the competition of the j
TNCs on the global market.
Europe was always one of the major priorities for Russian
integration. It is caused by a great number of reasons: historical,
political, economic. Europe was always the main source of the foreign
investments to Russia, Russia always used the newest science and
engineering achievements from Europe. For this reason in the Russia
external policy in 1990s the role of European direction has essentially
European Union today is one of the three main industrial, financial
and trade centers of the world. It is especially important for the
European part of Russia, where basic part of the population and
manufacture are concentrated.
EU is the basic trade partner of Russia. Its share in Russian trade
turnover is 35 %. Up to 60 % of all foreign investments come to Russia
from the EU. Though the share of Russia in the EU foreign
trade is only 3,5 %, Russia provides up to 20 % of gas and 16 % of oil to
EU. Also Russia is the main importer of the European agricultural