Международное предпринимательство - Ерохин В.Л.
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protection of their producers) (fig. 14.8).
The manufacture of agricultural products, as well as in the previous
scripts, is decreased, but unsignificant (fig. 14.9). The GDP and
investments at the Script 3 will stay constant.
So, the WTO accession will be positive for Russian agriculture only
if the conditions of the accession are favourable to Russia.
Russia should be allowed by WTO to provide the state support at the
level of other countries, for example, USA or EU countries.
In USA the annual state support of agriculture is $20 bin., in
Germany - $10 bin.
A similar situation and with the import tariffs.
The import tariffs should provide Russia with the real protection tool
for internal agricultural producers from the expansion of import
There is no doubt that Russia will enter WTO, because nobody
able to break the global tendencies.
The preparation to the WTO accession today should proceed in a
practical way - training of the staff, development of the appropriate
We should follow the words of the President of the Russian
Federation Vladimir Putin: "WTO is not the absolute evil and not the
absolute benefit. It is the tool, and we should learn how to use it".
14.4 Russia and global integration processes
The place and role of any country in global market depend on
many factors. Basic of them are:
1) level and dynamics of national economic development;
2) openness degree of the national economy;
3) character of its participation in the international economic
4) progressiveness and development of foreign economic rela-
5) "flexibility" of the national economy (its possibility to adapt to
the conditions of the international market and simultaneously
to influence on these conditions in the desirable way);
6) presence of the necessary legislative conditions for the foreign
7) presence of the international (transnational) corporations.
The basis of the integration process develops at a micro-level as
mutually advantageous cooperation of the concrete companies,
banks, financial and industrial groups, their joint investment projects,
creation of the transnational enterprises.
The historical and economic analysis shows, that Russia (USSR)
went through five stages in its interaction with global economy.
These stages have the following economic features:
Stage 1. 1917-1945. Political and economic isolation. The
economic and political situation in Europe at that time was
characterized by the several tendencies:
1. The activization of the "national movements" in the Slavic
countries started after the First World War.
2. USA, Great Britain and France had strengthened their
positions, they have accepted the basic rules of the Agreement
on Collective Safety.
3. Revolution in Russia (1917), Civil War (1917-1920), creation
of the Soviet Union (1921). The Russian contacts with other
foreign countries are minimal. Russia is in isolation.
4. The economic cooperation and development of the foreign
trade relations in not the priority for the Soviet government.
5. The power of Soviets is absolute. The Soviets try to create the
"country of a new type". The country is "closed", the
collectivization and industrialization plus the "military and
communist terror" let to saturate the interior with all the
necessary products and services. 6. Such autonomy became one
of the factors of our victory in the
Second World War. Stage 2. 1945-1985. Cooperation with other
socialist countries ("socialist camp"):
1. Political expansion to the developing countries.
2. After the Second World War USSR has surrounded itself with
the countries with the socialist and soviet political regimes
(Eastern Europe). It allowed to realize the socialist model of the
international trade relations.
3. The opposition with USA and North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO). The "Iron Curtain".
4. There was created the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
(CMEA) that has resulted in creation of the system of redistribution
of the production and services among participating countries.
5. The new economic system was actually created with the priority
of the political principles. It has resulted in decrease of the
economic efficiency and competitive advantages, that became
one of the reasons of destruction of this system.
Stage 3. 1985-1991. Disappearance of socialism as political system.
1. Destroy of the Soviet political system.
2. Liquidation of the CMEA.
3. Gorbatchev and new economic and external policy ("Perest-
4. The termination of the opposition with USA and NATO.
5. The decrease of the competitiveness in the international markets.
The economic crisis was caused by the structural factors. Import
had sharply decreased (45 % in 1989-1990). Export decreased
on 27 % during 8 months in 1989, mainly because of the