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Международное предпринимательство - Ерохин В.Л.

Ерохин В.Л. Международное предпринимательство — М.: Финансы и статистика, 2008. — 392 c.
ISBN 978-5-279-03329-4
Скачать (прямая ссылка): mejdunarodnoepridprinimatelstvo2008.doc
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6. Today. The lobbying of the interests of the separate companies
and groups can become the serious problem for government and
After. The participation in WTO will essentially reduce the
lobbying opportunities since. Russia will be restricted by the rigid
obligations, including the obligation on non-discrimination.
7. Today. The Russian customs policy, as well as the policy of the
regulation of the market access, has inconsistent and complicated
After. The participation in WTO will subordinate the policy of

the regulation of the market access to the strict international
rules. 8. Today. The integration of Russia and other CIS countries is
extremely slow. Nowadays it is under the threat because of the
accession to WTO of Georgia and Kirghizia, and also Ukraine and
other CIS countries intention to join WTO.
After. The Russian participation in WTO will promote the
strengthening of the relations within the framework of CIS on
the basis of the agreements on free trade and creation of the
customs union.
Alongside with positive aspects of the Russian integration to the
system of the international trade on the basis WTO rules, there are
also some questions widely discussed by the domestic economists and
various mass media and considered as negative consequences of the
WTO accession:
1. Russia will lose the opportunity to protect the national producers,
since the tariff will be "binded" and the subsidies will be limited.
The level of the "tariff binding" is the question of negotiation.
Most likely, it will be possible for Russia to achieve the average
level of "binding" which is 12 %, that is higher, than expected
level of the tariff protection after the realization of last decisions
on the so-called "harmonization". Russia will be able to actively
apply the tools of the selective protection from the damaging
foreign competition, which are practically not used till now. In
critical cases Russia can quit the "tariff binding". As to the
subsidies, the interdictions concern mainly the export subsidies in
industry, which are ] practically not given in Russia. The
subsidizing of the agrarian sector is a separate question. All the
kinds of agricultural subsidizing are allowed by WTO. The task is
the coordination of the reasonable level of such subsidies.
2. Russia will be compelled to open the key services markets, that
will damage the national interests.
Any WTO partner does not require the complete liberalization
of services markets yet. There are some measures in the project
of the Russian obligations. The application of these measures can
remove the negative effect of the foreign competition even in
case of the complete opening of the certain services markets. The
access for the foreign suppliers is now

limited only in 6 sectors of services. In critical cases Russia can
quit the obligations on access on the concrete services market.
3. Russia will lose the opportunity to carry out the independent
economic policy.
Already now the economic independence of Russia is limited by
more than 4000 international agreements, in which it participates. A
number of these agreements (for example, the Agreement on
partnership and cooperation with EU) contain the direct references to
the concrete clauses of the WTO agreements and obligations
identical or comparable to the obligations of the WTO participants.
On the other hand, the decision of the number of important
macroeconomic tasks is unreal without using the international
experience of other countries.
4. The participation in WTO will result in growth of the expenses of
the federal budget.
The annual charges of the country on participation in WTO do
not exceed $1-2 mln. (fees and payments).
5. The participation in WTO will require the serious changes in the
work of the Russian government and parliament.
In this case the uneasy task should be solved: the education
and training of the qualified specialists to work in the government
and parliament.
At accession to WTO the candidate country takes up the certain
obligations. It is possible to allocate two main directions of these
1. the obligations on the necessity of unification of the national
legislation and practice of its application in conformity to the
WTO norms and rules;
2. coordination of the individual obligations during negotiations (the
conditions of liberalization of the market access for goods and
The basic economic consequences of the WTO accession can be
connected to these obligations. The analysis of the WTO accession
consequences should be concentrated on:
1) the research of the consequences of the legislation change
according to the WTO norms and rules, as concerning the
reflection of the general principles, and performance of the
concrete requirements in the field of application of the trade policy
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