Международное предпринимательство - Ерохин В.Л.
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continued the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT),
concluded after the Second World War. This system was created to
adjust global trade through the mechanism of restraint of the unilateral
actions. It worked almost 50 years and proved its effectiveness as a
legal basis of multilateral trade relations. In the years after the Second
World War there was the exclusive growth of global trade. The annual
growth of export was 6 %. The system developed during the series of
trade negotiation (rounds). On the first rounds the questions of tariffs
reduction were discussed, but later negotiations had captured other
areas, such as antidumping and non-tariff measures. The "Uruguayan
round" in 1986-1994 has resulted in creation of WTO. This organization
has considerably expanded the sphere of GATT, it included the trade of
services (GATS) and trade-related aspects of intellectual property right
(TRIPS). Thus, the GATT mechanism was advanced and adapted to the
present stage of development of international trade.
The main tasks of WTO:
1) liberalization of international trade;
2) maintenance of the validity and predictability of international
3) providing the economic growth and increasing of the economic
wealth of the people.
Structure of WTO:
1. Ministerial Conference - top-level decisions.
2. General Council - performance of the current work.
3. Council on trade of goods - supervision over the activity of the
specialized committees, control of observance of the WTO
principles in the sphere of trade of the goods.
4. Council on trade of services - control of performance of the
General Agreement on Trade of Services. In its structure are the
Committee on trade in financial services and Working group on
5. Council on trade-related aspects of intellectual property right -
is engaged also in questions of prevention of occurrence of the
conflicts connected to international trade by the counterfeit goods.
The negotiation on Russian accession into WTO started in 1995.
The negotiation on the conditions of the products access to the market
is one of the four elements of conditions for any country to WTO (three
others are services, agriculture and so-called "system questions"). The
major part of such negotiations is the tariff negotiations on the
maximum allowable import rates levels. The country will have the
right to use these rates after the WTO accession. The tariff negotiations
are conducted on the bilateral basis with all interested countries in
In 1998, Russia has presented its initial tariff offers to the WTO
partners. These offers had the obvious protectionist character and told
about the closing of the Russian market, not about opening. Though,
formally these offers were not rejected by the partners, were actually
considered as unacceptable, and tariff negotiation on their basis was not
conducted. Only by the end of 1998 on the basis of various concessions
from the Russian side it was possible to get the consent from EU and
USA and to enter the real tariff negotiation started in Moscow in
February, 1999. So, it was the first stage of tariff negotiation - stage of
mutual acquaintance. It was finished in the beginning of 1999.
The second stage is 1999: negotiations were carried only with EU
and USA, but very intensively. But there were not the contours of the
probable compromise yet. There were the tariff inquiries from a number
of other WTO countries (Hungary, Korea, Poland, Switzerland,
Norway, Turkey etc.). But they were obviously directed on essential
opening of the market on a number of the products, therefore there
were no real negotiations with these countries during this period. So,
we can say, that the second stage is the beginning of practical tariff
negotiations with EU and USA and expansion of the circle participating
in tariff negotiations up to 15 countries.
The third stage started in 2000. The intensity of tariff negotiations
has essentially increased. For the first time there were designated the
contours of the probable compromise within the framework of negotiations
with EU and USA. The active tariff negotiations started with Canada
and Japan. The amount of tariff inquiries from the various WTO
countries had increased. 38 WTO countries already participated in the
negotiations. These countries were the major Russian trade partners.
With some of these countries the negotiations were structural enough,
and the share of the agreed tariff positions had exceeded 50 %.
The fourth stage (2004-2005), when under the initiative of the
Russian side the intensity of the tariff negotiations has increased even
more. With the largest WTO countries there were 6 negotiation rounds,
including the negotiations in the capitals of these countries, and with
others 40 countries - not less than 4 rounds. It allowed to reach the