Международное предпринимательство - Ерохин В.Л.
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Of course, such trade specialization predetermined the character of
Russian foreign trade development in the modern period. .1998
The essential recession of foreign trade activity because of the
extremely adverse internal and external economic conditions.
FTT - $116,6 bin. It has decreased on 16,8 %.
Export - $72,5 bin. Decrease on 16 %.
Import - $44,1 bin. Decrease on 18 %.
The FTT decrease is a result of the aggravation of financial crisis in
The decrease of the Russian foreign trade volumes can also be explained
with the low global prices for the main Russian export products (oil,
metals and chemical products). The losses of the country only on three
commodity positions (petroleum, diesel fuel and black oil) were $4,3 bin.
FTT - $102,2 bin. Decrease on 11,2 %.
Export - $71,8 bin. Decrease on 0,7 %.
Import - $30,2 bin. Decrease on 30,7 %.
The growth of the global oil prices promoted the increase of the
FTT - $136,6 bin. Increase on 32,4 %.
Export - $102,8 bin. Increase on 41,0 %.
Import - $33,8 bin. Increase on 11,5 %.
The volume of the Russian export in 2000 has exceeded $100 bin.,
because of the growth of global prices on oil and other fuel and energy
goods, ferrous and precious metals.
FTT - $149,1 bin. Increase on 3,6 %.
Export - $100,7 bin. Decrease on 2,3 %.
Import - $41,2 bin. Increase on 21,7 %.
In 2001 the Russian FTT has reached the highest level for the
period of 1992 - 2001. This was promoted by the significant growth
of import volume, the increase of the internal demand, the growth of
the investments and level of the real incomes of the population.
FTT - $151,8 bin. Increase on 7,0 %.
Export - $105,8 bin. Increase on 5,8 %.
Import - $46,0 bin. Increase on 9,8 %.
The situation on the international markets was still favorable for the
Russian exporters. The export volume increasing has resulted in
strengthening of the national currency and growth of the internal
demand, that has caused the appropriate growth of the import volumes.
Russian export during 1998 - 2002 developed under the primary
orientation on the development of the foreign trade relations with the
EU countries and USA.
The growth of export volumes to the Western Countries was caused
by a number of reasons:
1) the consequences of the financial crisis of 1998. This crisis has
caused the devaluation of the national currency and the relative
increase of competitiveness of the external markets in comparison
with internal market;
2) the decrease of production costs that increased the competitiveness
of the Russian products on the global market. But in 2000-2002
the devaluation effect was exhausted;
3) oil prices growth.
Russia doesn't use the great potential of the trade relations with CIS
countries. It was the region of the traditional political and economic
influence of the USSR, but today we can see that Russia is loosing its
traditional power in this region.
In structure of Russian import during 1998-2002 we can also see the
tendency of prevalence of the Western Countries in comparison with
the CIS countries.
The devaluation effect after financial crisis in 1998 had the return
influence on the character of Russian import in comparison with export:
1) significant reduction of import volumes has created the favourable
conditions for the development of national manufacture to
substitute the lack of the expensive foreign products on the domestic
2) the crisis has also caused the reorientation of import on cheaper
goods from the CIS countries;
3) The overcoming of the negative consequences for the importers
in the next years has caused the significant growth of import
volumes, basically because of the hi-tech products and new
4) import from the CIS countries decreased up to the level of 1998;
5) it shows the essential dependence of Russian economy from the
import from Western Countries, especially on equipment, high
So, it is necessary to note, that the tendencies of raw orientation of
Russian export and the high dependences of Russian economy on
import can not be favorable for the further development of the Russian
It is necessary to diversify the Russian export, to develop the
national import substitute production. In Russia we should create the
world-standard legislative basis for international trade. We should work
on the optimization of the geographical structure of Russian foreign
trade relations, including the orientation on the perspective markets of
the CIS countries. And of course we should expand the Russian
participation in the integrated organizations and unions in the sphere of
14.2 WTO and Russia: the basic access questions
The World Trade Organization (WTO) was created in 1995. It